Grade 11

Judaic Studies

Gemara (YOC)

The goal of the Gemara program is to graduate students with the ability to decipher, understand and read a basic unseen Gemara independently. Furthermore, students acquire an appreciation for the beauty and relevance of Gemara to their lives as modern day Jews. Each grade focuses on a distinct set of skills, vocabulary, grammar and use of commentators which carries over to the next grade. This generates a continuous progression of skill and knowledge throughout the students’ four years of Gemara study. Each grade is streamed into two or three levels in order to ensure that students are able to progress through the curriculum at a pace and learning style that will maximize their growth. Sugyot are chosen based on relevance to student’s lives as well as ones which allow exposure to a breadth of structures and content common in Gemara. The entire Yeshiva studies the same select Sugyot from one מסכת. This enables classes and grades to engage in joint learning programs such as חבורות and שיעורים כלליים by Rebbeim and guest Rabbis.
Each year, both Yeshivat Or Chaim and Ulpanat Orot will be choosing one mesechet to learn with the goal of focusing on a variety of mesechtot over the course of their four years of learning.

Beit Midrash

  • • Central emphasis on intense Chevruta learning.
    • Expansion of use of key function words, grammar and vocabulary.
    • Learn how to understand the underlying basis of a מחלוקת in the gemara.
    • Use of multiple Rishonim who focus on the text of the specific Sugya, looking at how each understood it and the merits of each approach. This includes but is not limited to Rashi and Tosfot.
    • See how Achronim analyze the מחלוקות of the Rishonim.
    • Learn how to determine the halachic conclusion of a gemara.

Topical Gemara

  • • Reinforce use of key function words, grammar and vocabulary.
    • Analyze the moral and philosophical premises and conclusions of a Sugya.
    • Following the Gemara discussion to Halacha.

Torah Shebe’al Peh (UO)

At Ulpanat Orot, we work to develop the skills, knowledge and appreciation for learning that encourage a lifetime of study and observance. Thus, we strive to instill our students with an understanding of הפ לעבש הרות and its practical implications. In addition, we aim to impart anunderstanding of the development of הפ לעבש הרות from the Biblical sources through the Gemara, Rishonim, Achronim and ultimately to modern day commentaries and practices. We believe that all our students should have a basic understanding of the way Gemara operates, the basic skills of reading Gemara, and the overall role Gemara plays within the development of Halacha. The entire school learns the same תכסמ, enabling school-wide focus on similar concepts and issues. Sugyot are chosen based on relevance and applicability to students’ every day Halachic observance. All classes include focus on the building blocks of reading and understanding the syntax and language of texts.

Advanced Talmud (UO)
This class will be in place of 2 full semester courses and will meet 6 times per week. There will be a Beit Midrash component twice a week and a regular class/shiur 4 times a week. There will be a central emphasis on intense Chevruta learning as well as focus on the following:

  • Expansion of use of key function words, grammar and vocabulary.
  • Learn how to understand the underlying basis of a מחלוקת in the Gemara.
  • Use of multiple Rishonim who focus on the text of the specific Sugya, looking at how each understood it and the merits of each approach. This includes, but is not limited to, Rashi and Tosfot.
  • See how Achronim analyze the מחלוקות of the Rishonim.
  • Learn how to determine the Halachic conclusion of a Gemara

Talmud – Halacha Track (UO)
This course will focus on sugyot in Masechet Bava Kama, with an emphasis on the relevant Halachot that stem from each topic. The Halacha will be traced from the Torah She’bichtav all the way through contemporary Halachic applications. For example, the concept of zeh nehene v’zeh lo chaser – At a baseball game, can I sit in the lower level if the seats are empty, even if I didn’t pay for the ticket? This course is for those who enjoy learning Talmud, yet always look for a way to make it more relevant.

Torah

The goal of the Chumash program is to instill in students an appreciation, love and dedication to the foundational Jewish texts of Chumash. Students come to see Chumash as a source of inspiration and guidance to their view of the world. With an emphasis on skills acquisition, an important component of pedagogy is student engagement with text, including guided worksheets and task driven assignments. A significant amount of class time is spent in cooperative learning groups or Chevrutot affording students the opportunity to uncover the meaning of the text and thereby applying the skills they have been exposed to in order to comprehend the material learned. Students become familiar with the various approaches to text analysis from both a טשפ and תונשרפ perspective.

Bereishit I and II (UO)
The study of Bereshit allows students to revisit the familiar stories with a new maturity. The creation story and the place of the תובא and תוהמא in Hashem’s broader scheme of creation are highlighted in this course with an emphasis on the centrality of Eretz Yisrael. Students explore the lives and challenges faced by the forbearers of the Jewish people trying to draw inspiration from them in meaningful and practical ways.

Hebrew Language

The goal of the Ivrit program is to turn Ivrit from a “second language” to a second mother tongue, thus enhancing students’ skill to approach traditional texts as well as imparting a familiarity and identification with Israel, its culture and people. Learning on all levels is accomplished through total immersion in the language, thus developing students’ skill to speak, understand, read and write Ivrit.
A wide variety of tools and resources are used to expose students to the richness and vitality of Ivrit as both an ancient and modern language and culture. Students are given many opportunities to express themselves in speech, writing, drawing and other creative ways enabling them to develop a greater comfort level and appreciation of Ivrit.

This course offers students various opportunities to further develop their knowledge of Hebrew and to enhance their communication skills. Students use increasingly sophisticated language in a variety of activities that enable them to speak and write with clarity and accuracy. Students also enhance their thinking skills through the critical study of literature, and continue to explore aspects of the culture of Israel through a variety of print and technological resources. Thematic units include: The Hebrew Calendar, Living in a New Country, Tarnegol Kaparot, The Israeli Declaration of Independence, the Holocaust, Hassidut and The role of Media in life.

Navi

The goal of the Navi program is to familiarize students with the world of Tanach as an expression of the eternal relationship between Hashem and the Jewish people and its message to their lives today. Using the wealth of exegesis tools from the classical םינשרפ up until contemporary approaches, students develop skills to analyze the various layers of Tanach. Students gain tools to independently decipher the language, narrative, literary themes and Parshanut of the Navi leading to a life inspired by the study of Tanach and its eternal messages.

Melachim Bet / Yeshayahu (UO)
This class will be an in-depth exploration of the life and times of the great prophet Yeshayahu who delivered his messages to the Kings of Israel, to the Jewish people, and to the world. The relevance of these prophecies and the times we live in will be heavily emphasized. Topics include leadership, tefilla, kedusha, mashiach, teshuva and others.

Melachim Bet / Yirmiyahu (UO)
This class will be an in-depth exploration of the life history, challenges and tribulations of the prophet of destruction, Yirmiyahu Hanavi. The prophecies studied will be viewed within the historical context provided by Sefer Melachim, with an understanding that Yirmiyahu himself was the author of both seforim. The relevance of Yirmiyahu’s prophecies will be emphasized as it relates to modern times. Topics include prophetic imagery, teshuva, destruction and redemption, tefilla, and Hashem’s love for Bnei Yisrael.

Leadership in Nach (UO)
In this course, different leadership topics and themes will be explored by looking at different leaders found in Nach. The goal is to reflect on different leadership styles found in Nach and find role models for your own personal leadership style.
Questions to discuss will include:

  • What are the most important traits a leader should have?
  • What are the biggest challenges that every leader faces?
  • How can I affect change in others, my community and the world?
  • How can leaders recover and grow from mistakes?
  • When does being a follower take precedence over being a leader?

Some of the leaders that will be covered are Yoshiyahu, Shaul, Ezra, Nechemia, Daniel, David, Eliyahu, Elisha, and many others.

Methodology of Tanach and Chassidut (YOC)
The goal of this course is to explore both textual tools of Tanach study as well as the deeper, Chassidic, interpretations of Tanach. The first half of the course will focus on ‘how to learn Tanach’. Using various methods of Tanach study, students will become familiar with the various tools and structures to discover deeper layers of the text. Units include art of the white fire (the empty space), art of the letter (what is behind the letters of the Torah), art of the word (thematic and symbolic words), art of the sentence (anaphora, epiphora) and art of structure (chiastic and concentric structures). The second half of the course will focus on the methodology of Chassidut on the Torah – seeing the thought process behind different Chassidik thinkers approach to the Psukim. Students will become familiar with the historical development of Chassidut, major approaches and general biographies of the approaches studied. These include Sefat Emmet, Reb Tzadok, Rav Kook, Rav Nachman, Mei HaShiloch, Pizezna Rebbe, Meor Einim and Kedushat HaLevi.

Meshalim – Stories in Tanach, Midrash and Chassidut (YOC)
The goal of this course is to become familiar and understand the role Meshalim (analogies) play throughout Jewish Thought and how they help us better understand Torah and grow religiously. Some questions include – what exactly is a Mashal? When are they used and for what purpose? Why are Meshalim so central to understanding Torah and Judaism? We will examine various sources and compare their approaches to these questions. Topics to be covered include Meshalim in Tanach, the Rambam’s approach in The Guide to the Perplexed, Meshalim in Chassidut and Rav Nachman and Kabbalistic terminology and Meshalim.

Halacha – Jewish Law

Hilchot Shabbat- Mitzvot Aseh (UO)
The purpose of this course is to focus on the fundamental Halachic aspects of Shabbat and to understand how the relevant Halachot can enrich your appreciation of Shabbat. This semester course will focus on כבוד and עונג and the core positive mitzvot of Shabbat: קידוש, נירות, שלש סעודות and הבדלה.

Hilchot Shabbat- Mitzvot Lo Ta’aseh (UO)
The goal of this course is to familiarize students with the 39 melachot of Shabbat and their relevance in order to increase both their understanding and observance of these laws. The focus of the class will be more on practical aspects of the Halacha and the impact they have on students’ weekly Shabbat experiences.

History, Morality and Halacha (UO)
The goal of this course is to survey areas of contemporary Jewish life from an interdisciplinary perspective. Topics are analyzed and discussed from a historical, Halachic and philosophical outlook. Topics will include: Anti-Semitism, Remembering Amalek, Assimilation and Intermarriage, Different types of Judaism, Forgiveness, Beauty and plastic surgery, Death Penalty, Recycling, Dina d’malchuta dina and others. Through Independent Study Projects, students will learn to use and interpret sources, think creatively, and understand how everyday topics are rooted in the Torah.

She’elot U’Teshuvot Throughout Jewish History (UO)
This course will take you on a journey through Jewish history witnessed through the eyes of some of the greatest Halakhic authorities in our celebrated tradition. Join the Rambam in Egypt as he grappled with questions of forced conversion to Islam, Rabbi Moshe Sofer in Eastern Europe as he dealt with the challenges posed by emerging movements in Judaism, Rabbi Avraham Yitzchak HaKohen Kook in Israel who fielded issues regarding voting rights for women and the Jewish farmers dilemma during the shemitta year, Rabbi Ephraim Oshry in the Kovno Ghetto who faced excruciating questions of life and death, and Rabbi Moshe Feinstein in America who brilliantly guided the Jewish community through the threats of assimilation, intermarriage, and many other contemporary issues.

Medical Ethics (UO)
This course will explore many of the ethical dilemmas that exist in the world of medicine from a Halachic perspective. We will go through the sources from the Torah, Gemara, Rishonim and Acharonim, as well as contemporary Halachic sources. Some of the major issues include Euthanasia, Organ Donations, Abortion, Brain Death and others.

Jewish History

The Bnei Akiva Schools Jewish History curriculum is designed to enable students to understand the history of the Jews and their effect on cultures as well as individuals. Students are encouraged to think critically about the political, economic, cultural and social bases for historical events, as well as about the people who helped drive them.

Chochmat Sepharad – History, Thought and Halacha (YOC)
The goal of this course is to give the student a well-rounded understanding of Sephardic Jewry. Who are they? Where do they come from? What have they contributed in Torah? And what is the difference between Sephardic and Ashkenazic Jews? Starting with the historical background and the formulation of the Sephardi community, we will go through history discussing various aspects of this part of our joined tradition. Our focus will revolve around some of the most influential Sephardic Hachamim, their impact on the entire Jewish World and their Torah; from the time of the Geonim to the present Sephardic Chief Rabbi of Israel. Lastly, we will focus on core differences in Halacha and Minhagim between Sepharadim and Ashkenazim. Units studied will include history of Sephardic Jews to the present, Sephardic Hachamim throughout the ages (with a focus on the Rambam, R’ Yosef Karo, R’ Ovadia Yosef and the Sephardic Chief Rabbis of Israel), and the main Minhagim that differ between Sepharadim and Ashkenazim and their basis.

Modern Middle East (UO)
This course traces the emergence during the 20th century of the principle Middle-Eastern nation-states and examines their ongoing political, social, ideological and economic development. Students will investigate the roles played by various local and foreign groups and individuals and will learn to consider current events and challenges from a historical perspective. In addition, students will sharpen their research and analysis skills and will develop the ability to communicate in diverse ways their knowledge and understanding of this consistently important world crossroads. A special emphasis will be placed on students understanding the role the state of Israel plays in the Middle East. They will learn how to defend Israel against the constant claims of its illegitimate right to exist. Traditional teaching methods are complemented with multimedia presentations and speakers. Time will be spent focusing on how the development of the modern Middle East helps us to understand the important events taking place in that region today.

Modern Jewish History (UO)
In exploring the era of modern Jewish History, we will analyze the major events that have defined the Jewish people in contemporary times. We will discuss the personalities involved in these crucial moments that both positively and negatively affected the status of the Jews as a people. This course will start with the origins of the Chassidic movement and cover the Yeshiva movement, Haskala, Reform Movement and reactions to these crucial historical movements. Some of the key personalities include Shabetai Tzvi, Baal Shem Tov, Vilna Gaon, Moses Mendelson, Rav Chaim of Volozhin, Rav Shimshon Raphael Hirsch, Solomon Shechter and many others.

Jewish Thought

The Thinking Jew in the Modern World (UO)
In this course we will explore some of the big Jewish questions that students have. YOU will have the ability to ask the questions and determine the path of this course. Questions will be collected before the summer and the class will focus on them throughout the semester.
Some possible questions include:

  • Why can’t I just be a good person and not keep the Torah?
  • Why can’t I dress as I please?
  • Why do I repeat the same tefillot every day if they don’t mean anything to me anyway?

The content of this course will be determined by you!

Jewish Thought, Advanced (YOC)
The goal of the advanced Machshava course is for students to gain an in depth understanding of the building blocks of Jewish thought, enabling them to interpret the vast world of Jewish philosophy. Furthermore, students will learn how to shape their own perspectives of the world while relying on traditional texts and concepts. Through analysis and classroom conversations students will become familiar with the comprehensive approaches of major Jewish thinkers, including Rambam, Rabbi Yehudah Halevi, The Maharal, Rav Kook and Rav Yosef Dov Soloveitchik. Each unit will consist of an exploration of one classical thinker’s fundamental approach, followed by its implementation in a myriad of topics.

Inspired Tefillah: An Experiential Journey Through the Siddur (UO)
Tefilla for many (especially during one’s high school years) is a challenging, dull, and often empty experience. It doesn’t have to be that way. This class will open you up to the world of prayer through a whole new lens- through experiential and project based learning opportunities, this class will enable you to unlock the spirituality and motivation that you have within to find more meaning in your Tefilla experience.

General Studies

English

The goal of the English curriculum is based on the belief that language learning is critical to students’ intellectual, social and emotional growth. Literature is used as a medium to learn and understand the human condition and produce responsible and productive individuals. Students learn to think critically and develop their oral and written communication skills. Texts studied are chosen from various time periods and settings, encouraging students to make connections with the world around them.

University Preparation (ENG3U)
This course emphasizes the development of literacy, communication, and critical and creative thinking skills necessary for success in academic and daily life. Students will analyse challenging literary texts from various periods, countries, and cultures, as well as a range of informational and graphic texts, and create oral, written, and media texts in a variety of forms. An important focus will be on using language with precision and clarity and incorporating stylistic devices appropriately and effectively. The course is intended to prepare students for the compulsory grade 12 university or college preparation course.
Prerequisite: English, Grade 10, Academic

Social Sciences

The Social Sciences Department engages the students in a number of disciplines including History, Geography, Civics, Careers and a general Introduction to Social Sciences. In studying these subjects, students learn how people interact within their social and physical environments today and how they did so in the past. These subjects allow the students to develop the knowledge and values needed to become responsible, active and informed Canadian citizens in the 21st Century. Critical thinking, research and communication skills are stressed as are application of knowledge and skills.

Civics and Citizenship, Open (YOC) (CHV2O)
This course explores rights and responsibilities associated with being an active citizen in a democratic society. Students will explore issues of civic importance such as healthy schools, community planning, environmental responsibility, and the influence of social media, while developing their understanding of the role of civic engagement and of political processes in the local, national, and / or global community. Students will apply the concepts of political thinking and the political inquiry process to investigate, and express informed opinions about, a range of political issues and developments that are both of significance in today’s world and of personal interest to them.
Prerequisite: None

American History, University Preparation (CHA3U)
This course explores key aspects of the social, economic, and political development of the United States from precontact to the present. Students will examine the contributions of groups and individuals to the country’s evolution and will explore the historical context of key issues, trends, and events that have had an impact on the United States, its identity and culture, and its role in the global community. Students will extend their ability to apply the concepts of historical thinking and the historical inquiry process, including the interpretation and analysis of evidence, when investigating various forces that helped shape American history.
Prerequisite: Canadian History since World War I, Grade 10, Academic or Applied.

Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity, University / College Preparation (CHG38)
This course investigates examples of genocide in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, including the Holocaust, Armenia and Rwanda. Students will investigate the terms genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes and explore them through the lens of historical analysis. Students will examine identity formation and how “in groups” are created, including an analysis of how bias, stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination impact on various groups. As the course unfolds, students will be challenged to draw appropriate connections between the history of genocide and Canadian history and between the lives of the people they are investigating and their own lives. Students will use critical thinking skills to look at the themes of judgment, memory and legacy and will evaluate the ways in which active citizens may empower themselves to stop future genocides. Throughout the course, students will gain an understanding of the role of perpetrator, victim, bystander, opportunist and resister.

World History to End of the Fifteenth Century, University / College Preparation (CHW3M)
This course explores the history of various societies and civilizations around the world, from earliest times to around 1500 CE. Students will investigate a range of factors that contributed to the rise, success, and decline of various ancient and pre-modern societies throughout the world and will examine life in and the cultural and political legacy of these societies. Students will extend their ability to apply the concepts of historical thinking and the historical inquiry process, including the interpretation and analysis of evidence, when investigating social, political, and economic structures and historical forces at work in various societies and in different historical eras.
Prerequisite: Canadian History since World War I, Grade 10, Academic or Applied.

The Modern Middle East, University / College Preparation (CHZ47)
This course traces the emergence during the 20th century of the principle Middle-Eastern nation-states and examines their ongoing political, social, ideological and economic development. Students will investigate the roles played by various local and foreign groups and individuals and will learn to consider current events and challenges from a historical perspective. In addition, students will sharpen their research and analysis skills and will develop the ability to communicate in diverse ways their knowledge and understanding of this consistently important world crossroads.
Prerequisite: Any university or university / college preparation course in Canadian and world studies, English, or social sciences and humanities.

Introduction to Anthropology, Psychology, and Sociology, University Preparation (HSP3U)
This course provides students with opportunities to think critically about theories, questions, and issues related to anthropology, psychology, and sociology. Students will develop an understanding of the approaches and research methods used by social scientists. They will be given opportunities to explore theories from a variety of perspectives, to conduct social science research, and to become familiar with current thinking on a range of issues within the three disciplines.
Prerequisite: The Grade 10 academic course in English, or the Grade 10 academic history course (Canadian and world studies).

Guidance And Career Education

Careers, Open (YOC) (GLC20)
This course teaches students how to develop and achieve personal goals for future learning, work, and community involvement. Students will assess their interests, skills, and characteristics and investigate current economic and workplace trends, work opportunities, and ways to search for work. The course explores postsecondary learning and career options, prepares students for managing work and life transitions, and helps students focus on their goals through the development of a career plan.

Business Studies

Business Leadership: Management Fundamentals, University / College Preparation (BOH4M)
This course focuses on the development of leadership skills used in managing a successful business. Students will analyse the role of a leader in business, with a focus on decision making, management of group dynamics, workplace stress and conflict, motivation of employees, and planning. Effective business communication skills, ethics, and social responsibility are also emphasized.

Communications Technology, University / College Preparation (TGJ3M)
This course examines communications technology from a media perspective. Students will develop knowledge and skills as they design and produce media projects in the areas of live, recorded, and graphic communications. These areas may include TV, video, and movie production; radio and audio production; print and graphic communications; photography; digital imaging; broadcast journalism; and interactive new media. Students will also develop an awareness of related environmental and societal issues, and will explore college and university programs and career opportunities in the various communications technology fields.
Prerequisite: None

International Business Fundamentals, University / College Preparation (BBB4M)
This course provides an overview of the importance of international business and trade in the global economy and explores the factors that influence success in international markets. Students will learn about the techniques and strategies associated with marketing, distribution, and managing international business effectively. This course prepares students for postsecondary programs in business, including international business, marketing, and management.

The Individual and the Economy, University/College Preparation (CIE3M)
This course explores issues and challenges facing the Canadian economy as well as the implications of various responses to them. Students will explore the economic role of firms, workers, and government as well as their own role as individual consumers and contributors, and how all of these roles contribute to stability and change in the Canadian economy. Students will apply the concepts of economic thinking and the economic inquiry process, including economic models, to investigate the impact of economic issues and decisions at the individual, regional, and national level.

Core French

As a component of the French as a Second Language curriculum, the Core French program is designed to provide students with essential communication skills as well as the fundamental structures of the French language. In developing a useable command of the French language, the program aims to help students participate in basic conversations, read French text from a variety of sources, and consume French language media in multiple formats. The Core French program is enriched through the use of online and technology resources that aim to support student use of the language.

University Preparation (FSF3U)
This course offers students extended opportunities to speak and interact in real-life situations in French with greater independence. Students will develop their listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills, as well as their creative and critical thinking skills, through responding to and exploring a variety of oral and written texts. They will also broaden their understanding and appreciation of diverse French-speaking communities, and will develop skills necessary for lifelong language learning.
Prerequisite: Core French, Grade 10, Academic.

Healthy Active Living Education

The health and physical education program promotes healthy active living, and enjoyment and regular, enthusiastic participation in physical activity. The courses will help students understand how their personal actions and decisions will affect their health, fitness, and well-being. All courses in this curriculum address relevant health issues and provide students with a wide variety of activities that promote fitness, the development of living skills, and personal competence. In each course, students will develop the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to enjoy a healthy lifestyle and to build a commitment to lifelong participation in physical activity.

Open (PPL3O)
This course enables students to further develop the knowledge and skills they need to make healthy choices now and lead healthy, active lives in the future. Through participation in a wide range of physical activities and exposure to a broader range of activity settings, students enhance their movement competence, personal fitness, and confidence. Students also acquire an understanding of the factors and skills that contribute to healthy development and learn how their own well-being is affected by, and affects, the world around them. Students build their sense of self, learn to interact positively with others, and develop their ability to think critically and creatively.
Prerequisite: None

Mathematics

The Mathematics curriculum serves to provide students with a foundational understanding of core concepts in grades 9, 10 and 11, where students develop basic geometric and algebraic manipulation skills through the study of a variety of functional relationships. These foundations serve as the basis for upper level courses where students may choose to study Data Management, Advanced Functions, and / or Calculus and Vectors. The Mathematics program aims to support student learning of mathematical processes – problem solving, reasoning, reflecting, selecting tools / strategies, connecting, representing and communicating – through a balanced variety of teaching and learning strategies and the integration of technological tools. The senior level courses are intended for university / college preparation. At the Bnei Akiva Schools, the mathematics program is enriched through opportunities to participate in several mathematics competitions and contests throughout the school year.

Functions And Applications, University / College Preparation (MCF3M)
This course introduces basic features of the function by extending students experiences with quadratic relations. It focuses on quadratic, trigonometric, and exponential functions and their use in modelling real-world situations. Students will represent functions numerically, graphically, and algebraically; simplify expressions; solve equations; and solve problems relating to applications. Students will reason mathematically and communicate their thinking as they solve multi-step problems.
Prerequisite: Principles of Mathematics, Grade 10, Academic, or Foundations of Mathematics, Grade 10, Applied.

Functions, University Preparation (MCR3U)
This course introduces the mathematical concept of the function by extending students experiences with linear and quadratic relations. Students will investigate properties of discrete and continuous functions, including trigonometric and exponential functions, represent functions numerically, algebraically, and graphically, solve problems involving applications of functions, investigate inverse functions, and develop facility in determining equivalent algebraic expressions. Students will reason mathematically and communicate their thinking as they solve multi-step problems.
Prerequisite: Principles of Mathematics, Grade 10, Academic.

Computer Studies

Introduction To Computer Science, Open (ICS3U)
This course introduces students to computer science. Students will design software independently and as part of a team, using industry-standard programming tools and applying the software development life-cycle model. They will also write and use subprograms within computer programs. Students will develop creative solutions for various types of problems as their understanding of the computing environment grows. They will also explore environmental and ergonomic issues, emerging research in computer science, and global career trends in computer-related fields.

Science

The secondary Science curriculum is founded on the premise that students learn most effectively when they are active participants in the Science classroom. Accordingly, the curriculum employs an investigative approach building on students’ prior knowledge in an effort to develop sound procedural and conceptual understanding. General Science courses in grades 9 and 10 are followed by a program of science electives consisting of Biology, Chemistry and Physics. Beyond conceptual knowledge, the breadth of the science program aims to develop scientific literacy through the ability to communicate through a variety of scientific formats and representations of scientific information. The Science curriculum also makes use of appropriate technological tools to help students access and explore concepts in innovative ways. The senior Science courses are intended for university / college preparation. At Bnei Akiva Schools, the Science program is enriched through opportunities to participate in individual and collaborative competitions.

Biology, University Preparation (SBI3U)
This course furthers students understanding of the processes involved in biological systems. Students will study cellular functions, genetic continuity, internal systems and regulation, the diversity of living things, and the anatomy, growth, and functions of plants. The course focuses on the theoretical aspects of the topics under study, and helps students refine skills related to scientific investigation.
Prerequisite: Science, Grade 10, Academic.

Chemistry, University Preparation (SCH3U)
This course focuses on the concepts and theories that form the basis of modern chemistry. Students will study the behaviours of solids, liquids, gases, and solutions, investigate changes and relationships in chemical systems, and explore how chemistry is used in developing new products and processes that affect our lives and our environment. Emphasis will also be placed on the importance of chemistry in other branches of science.
Prerequisite: Science, Grade 10, Academic.

Physics, University Preparation (SPH3U)
This course develops students’ understanding of the basic concepts of physics. Students will study the laws of dynamics and explore different kinds of forces, the quantification and forms of energy (mechanical, sound, light, thermal, and electrical), and the way energy is transformed and transmitted. They will develop scientific-inquiry skills as they verify accepted laws and solve both assigned problems and those emerging from their investigations. Students will also analyse the interrelationships between physics and technology, and consider the impact of technological applications of physics on society and the environment.
Prerequisite: Science, Grade 10, Academic.

Arts

Visual Arts: University / College Preparation (AVI3M)
This course provides students with opportunities to further develop their skills and knowledge in visual arts. Students will explore a range of subject matter through studio activities and will consolidate their practical skills. Students will also analyse art works and study aspects of Western art history, as well as art forms from Canada and other parts of the world.
Prerequisite: Visual Arts, Grade 9 or 10, Open.